In 2000, Slawomir Decyk , Paweł Kula and Diego Lopez Calvin invented solargraphy, a technique that allows to record tracks the sun in the sky during the extremely long exposure times. It is a combination of pinhole photography with a totally innovative approach to the use of photographic paper. Black-and-white photographic paper is photosensitive itself. Incident light causes blackening of the paper without any chemical development. This property of the paper was known for a long time, but due to the low effective sensitivity have not been applied. No one had ever planned exposure of photographic paper without the use of developer and fixer. The use of a dry paper in combination with pinhole camera extends exposure times from one day to six months or longer. The amount of light which goes through the pinhole (with a diameter less than 1mm) makes moving objects invisible in solargraphs. No people, no animals, no cars on the street. It remains only to what was motionless the whole time during the duration of the exposure. Only one registered object in motion is the Sun, which leaves bright curved lines one above each other, broken by periods of cloudiness. Each line corresponds to one day. Every day the Sun is plotting a path at a different height above the horizon. This opens the possibility to register analemma.
|No.||Year||Author||Location||Method||No. of expositions||Remarks||Reference|
|1||1979||Dennis di Cicco||USA||analog||45||Single frame||link|
|2||1989||H.J.P. Arnold||UK||analog||40||Single + foreground|
|3||1991||Frank Zullo||USA||analog||38||Single + foreground|
|4||1999||Jack Fishburn||USA||analog||26||Single frame|
|5||1999||Vasiliy Rumyantsev||Ukraine||analog||34||Single frame|
|7||2004||Juan Carlos Casado||Spain||analog||53||digitally processed||link|
|9||2006||Cenk E. Tezel & Tunç Tezel||Turkey||digital||32||composite||link|
|10||2008||Libor Judas (with: V. Dziedzicová, M. Krejčí, Š. Vejvančický)||Czech Republic||analog camera + digital processing||47||composite||link|
|12||2011||Paweł Janczaruk||Poland||analog, pinhole||30?||Single frame||link|
|13||2011?||Sharon F. Keisha||?||digital||21||link|
|17||2013||Peter Hill||?||solargraphy||50||Single frame||link|
|18||2013||Robert Nufer||Schwitzerland||movie||Every 1 minute||link|
|19||2013||Pál Váradi Nagy||Romania||digital||26+1||composite||link|
|21||2014||Zapiór & Fajfrowski||Poland||solargraphy||365, 3 times a day||Single frame, 3 analemmas||analemma.pl|
|25||2014||Adrianos Golemis||Antarctica||digital||23||Composite. Only a half of the analemma visible, because of the polar night.||Link|
|26||2014||Luca Vanzella||Canada||analog and digital||38+1||Single frame and composite||Link|
|27||2015||Dariusz Dorosz||Poland||solargraphy||approx. 160||6-min exposition daily||Link|
|28||2015||Zapiór & Fajfrowski||Poland||solargraphy||365, 5 times a day||Single frame, 5 analemmas||analemma.pl|
|29||2015||Zapiór & Fajfrowski||Poland||solargraphy||365, 4 times a day||Single frame, 4 analemmas||analemma.pl|
|30||2016||Dariusz Dorosz||Poland||solargraphy||Single frame||Link|
Despite the fact that it’s one of the most popular and accepted theories in cosmology, there are still many questions regarding the Big Bang theory. In order to answer them, we need to understand how the universe actually began.
There are several theories that attempt to explain the creation of the universe. One of these is the Big Bang theory, which states that the universe began as a single event, or singularity, 13 billion years ago. This event is believed to have led to the expansion of the universe, as well as the creation of space.
There are several other cosmological theories that attempt to explain the beginning of the universe. They include the Steady State model and the Big Bang model. Both of these models claim that the universe exploded from a densely packed primeval fireball.
The Big Bang theory has some drawbacks. In the first place, it seems to violate the first law of thermodynamics. It also implies that there was a time when the universe was infinitely hot. It also seems to contradict the fact that the universe expands today.
The Big Bang theory also fails to explain why some galaxies are too large to have formed during the age of the Universe. It also fails to explain what the universe is expanding into. However, the fact that the universe has expanded has led to the formation of galaxies that have moved away from Earth.
The Big Bang theory is not the only answer to the question, “how did the universe begin?” There are hundreds of theories attempting to do so. However, the Big Bang theory is the most logical and most likely explanation of the universe’s beginning.
Using an Astronomy best essay writing service visit is a good idea for students who wish to learn more about this field. It can help them to avoid the stress and strain associated with doing the work on their own. A good essay service will also help them to write a well-researched essay. Moreover, they will also be able to provide affordable prices.